But the Fed was not sure how low the reserves were, and polls last year suggested that reserves would not be scarce until they fell to less than $1.2 trillion. The Fed appears to have miscalculated, in part as a result of the banks` reactions to the Fed polls. It turned out that the banks wanted (or felt forced) to hold more reserves than the Fed had anticipated and were not prepared to borrow those reserves in the pension market, where there were many people with treasuries who wanted to use them as an enpo guarantee for cash. As demand outspaced supply, rest increased sharply. When the government is in a budget deficit, it borrows by issuing government bonds. The additional debt leaves the major traders – Wall Street intermediaries who buy the securities from the government and sell them to investors – with an increasing amount of collateral that can be used in the pension market. Deposits with a specified maturity date (usually the next day or the following week) are long-term repurchase contracts. A trader sells securities to a counterparty with the agreement that he will buy them back at a higher price at a given time. In this agreement, the counterparty receives the use of the securities for the duration of the transaction and receives interest that is indicated as the difference between the initial selling price and the purchase price. The interest rate is set and interest is paid at maturity by the trader. A repo term is used to invest cash or financial investments when the parties know how long it will take them. While a wide range of assets can be financed in the repurchase market, the most commonly used instruments are the UST, the Federal Securities Agency (agency), high-quality mortgage-backed securities (MBS), corporate bonds (companies) and money market instruments (MM). As a result, market participants were shocked by the fact that the SOFR benchmark repo rate rose to 5.25% on 17 September, while the IOER was only 2.1%.
The re-board operations take place in three forms: indicated delivery, tri-party and detention (where the “selling” party maintains the guarantee during the life of the pension). The third form (Hold-in-custody) is quite rare, especially in development-oriented markets, due in part to the risk that the seller may intervene before the transaction is completed and that the buyer will not be able to recover the guarantees issued as collateral for the transaction. The first form – the indicated delivery – requires the delivery of a predetermined loan at the beginning and maturity of the contract. Tri-Party is essentially a form of trading basket and allows a wider range of instruments in the basket or pool. In the case of a tripartite repurchase transaction, a third-party agent or bank is placed between the “seller” and the buyer. The third party retains control of the securities that are the subject of the agreement and processes payments made by the “seller” to the buyer. In addition to using Repo as a financing vehicle, repo-traders are “marketplaceing.”